Reflection after testimony
EDUT is a group of Witnesses of the Holocaust which offers schools in the City of Gothenburg and the Västra Götaland region free personal testimonies from the Holocaust, adapted for schools as well as training days for teachers with themes such as anti-Semitism and the Holocaust. There are more groups like this in Sweden and you can find them on this link at Forum for Living History.
If you and your students have had visits from a storytelling group, this is a great way to reflect on the visit and what the narrator has conveyed. The reflection in this example will result in chronicles. Mobile Stories tools provide students with support and tips during production, as well as the possibility of publishing on Mobilestories.se. Publication can lead to more people learning about the Holocaust and anti-Semitism. The fact that we are all helping to spread knowledge has become increasingly important as conspiracy theories, often based on anti-Semitic grounds, spread online.
It is important that students are informed about the Holocaust before the visit. Then it is easier to ask relevant questions during the testimony. It is also good to have some time to prepare mentally for the visit by, for example, watching one or more videos from others who have experienced the horrors of the Holocaust. In the “Background” section below, you can choose the exercises that your students need to be able to absorb the information from the narrator in the best way.
Hint! The info sign below the Chronicle article template in the Mobile Stories tool provides information about what a chronicle is and what it needs to contain.
The articles can be published and become part of the Young Voices for Tolerance campaign and spread on social media with the hashtag #YoungVoicesforTolerance
We all need to understand history in order to be able to see, reflect on and resist the racism and intolerance that exists in society.
The Holocaust has happened once and can happen again, says Peter Kadar (1935–2020) in this clip from EDUT:
“Thevaccination against this is that young people tell and that they do not let any form of anti-Semitism, racism or intolerance pass by.”
The task Reflection after testimony can be linked to a field of work dealing with the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, racism or other intolerance. At the Forum for Living History there are modules What was the Holocaust? and Anti-Semitism then and now as well as Testimonials with classroom exercisesthat can form the basis for further work. Here you will also findthe Timeline that can help students understand what happened in Sweden during this time.
- Sources and credibility
- Source criticism and trust of sources
- Lateral fact checking
- Digital self-test
- MIL challenge
Discussion exercise: Who/what can be a credible source? Let students make suggestions. Write up on the board or in a common document.
- Expert. If your source is an expert you have spoken to, such as a researcher, it should be clear what makes that particular person credible. The expert should have a special knowledge of exactly what they are speaking out about.
- The case. The case is an interviewee who is in some way affected by what you are writing about. It can be someone who has experienced an injustice or someone who has done something good and who can inspire others.
- Witness. A witness is someone who can confirm what you are writing if you are going to preferably collect more than one witness who indicates that the incident you mention in your article has taken place.
- Image. An image, still image, or moving image, showing a something happening can also be a source. Keep in mind that images may have been manipulated and are not always true.
- Document. A document can be, for example, a written letter or email, notes from a meeting or a decision from an authority or from the government.
- you. Of course, you become a source when you post something online.
Tip: Let students read the article “Responsible publisher: How journalists work with source criticism” that can be found under “Content” in mobile stories tools.
“Sources and credibility” is a model for creating structure in source auditing. When students search for information online, the classic criteria Authenticity, Time, Dependency, and Tendency should be used, in combination with checking what other sources say about the first source.
Give some suggestions for sources related to the topic, both good and some less good. Invite students to use the model below in groups to reflect on the relevance and credibility of the source in the context in which the source will be used. Then review what the students have come up with. Note, students don’t have to put a negative if they can’t find anything.
Here the template can be downloaded:
Feel free to have students read the help article “Source Criticism Methods” in mobile stories tool login mode: https://app.mobilestories.se/content/info_article_x_16812
This is a guide for those who want to source-check like a pro. This poster was produced by Therese Personne at Nya Elementar with the aim of helping schools value digital sources. Print a copy and set up in the classroom! The poster is available to download here:
Here students can take a digital self-test developed by Uppsala University in collaboration with the research institute Rise and the association Science & Public.
In this exmament, students in high school or high school can sharpen their knowledge of media, source criticism and online laws!
They can take the test up to 15 times. By explaining after each question, students can improve their performance and become more online smart every time they take the test! If they get 90 percent of the questions right, you can download a piece of evidence that they can put in their resume or share on social media.
Curriculum and Agenda 2030
Ethical rules for student reportersSubjects: Social studies, history, image, Swedish and Swedish as a second language, English or other language teaching.
UN Global Goals: 16 PEACEFUL AND INCLUSIVE SOCIETIES
Teacher support: Difficult questions in the classroom | Forum for Living History
Ethical rules for student reporters
If you haven’t done so before, read “Student Publisher’s Ethical Rules” in the mobile stories tool (in logged-in mode). Please also discuss what the various points mean. Put simply, they are about:
- Be careful with their sources and never publish inaccuracies or contribute to the spread of rumors online.
- Avoid hurting or offending an individual or group in society.
From reflection to chronicle
This guide leads to chronicles that students can then choose to publish. Hearing a witness can be a tumultuous experience. It is therefore good to be able to express what you have experienced in both conversations with classmates but also in peace and quiet in your very own text. When the student is satisfied with their column, the student can choose to publish it to awaken thoughts in others in society.
Practice according to EPA (single – pair – all).
This is an exercise before the visit that aims to train students to put into words the emotions they can get from another person’s story and try to find a core, an angle to work on.
Watch the clip about Abraham Frischer (1923-2009) on ETUM’s website together in class. All students should now sit quietly for a few minutes and think privately about the questions:
1. What caused you the most emotion? Something that was particularly upsetting?
2. How did it feel physically when you saw the clip? Did your body react in any way and if so, how?
3. Divide students into pairs. They then get to tell each other about what stirred the most emotion in the clip with Abraham and together think about why they think they were touched. Students are then allowed to write down the quote in the video that touched them the most. Students can watch the clip again if necessary. Students can also try to articulate why they think the sentence touched them.
If they wish, they can take on the role of interviewer and interviewee and then be changed. Use the questions in paragraphs 1 and 2 above.
4. Those students who want to can tell about their experiences in full class.
On conspiracy theories:
Some students may have encountered some of the online conspiracy theories that often have an anti-Semitic basis. Therefore, it can be good to go through what a conspiracy theory is and how to recognize them.
All conspiracy theories have six things in common, according to EU educational material How to discover conspiracy theories. View these criteria for students:
- An alleged, secret plot.
2. A group of conspirators.
3. “Evidence” that seems to support the conspiracy theory.
4. They falsely claim that nothing happens by chance and that coincidences do not exist. Nothing is as it seems and everything is connected.
5. The world is divided into good and evil.
6. They blame certain people and groups.
Hint! Please also use one or more of the exercises in the “Source Criticism Package” above.
Discuss in class:
Watch this clip with Peter Kadar (1935-2020) together in class.
1. Why do you think Peter Kadar thinks young people should tell you?
2. What kind of source is Peter Kadar? Use the model in the “Source Criticism and Reliance” tab above.
If you are a teacher, you will probably have contact with the person from the storytelling group before the visit. Inform that students will have the opportunity to write chronicles and then include their reflections from the visit. The chronicles can be published, ensure that the narrator’s name can be included in the context, otherwise students may omit this or perhaps only use first names. Feel free to ask these practical questions:
1. Can students record the call to make it easier to render quotes?
2. Can they take pictures during the testimony or take pictures after? If the narrator wishes to remain anonymous – is it possible for students to take anonymous pictures? Does the narrator want to bring any item that he or she has been saving since before the Holocaust or the time of the Holocaust? If the narrator is a child or grandson of someone who has experienced the horrors of the Holocaust, perhaps they can bring some possession from their relative, which the students can photograph?
3. Does the narrator want to read his quotes before any publication? By email or have them read aloud on the phone?
4. Is it okay for students to print the narrator’s name in their chronicles?
Students may be prepared to take notes that affect them extra. They can also record how they themselves react to the content of the testimony. An alternative to taking notes of the quotes to make an audio recording with the mobile, if this is agreed before.
Students can take photographs during the testimony itself or after, if this is okay with the narrator. If the narrator does not want the face to appear in the picture, an anonymous image can be an option – on hands, or any object that testifies to the narrator’s identity or background.
It is good if there are several different pictures but not everyone needs to take pictures. Another possibility is that students draw or paint their own pictures. It is also possible to use a picture of yourself. Here, a collaboration with the image teacher would come in handy. Making collages can also be a way to get time for reflection. In that case, students must be very careful to comply with copyright. In this video, you and your students can get tips on how to find photos that are approved to use for free.
chronicle.Have students work individually to write chronicles.
Students can read the info article about the chronicle article type in mobile stories tool (in logged-in mode): This is a chronicle
at Media Compass (formerly the Newspaper of the School) you will find a slightly more detailed text about the article type chronicle : Chronicle
Questions students can ask themselves when writing their column:
- How was your first impression of the person?
- What touched you most in the testimony?
- Was there anything that surprised you in the person’s story?
- Can you describe the feelings and thoughts it aroused in you?
- Will this meeting in any way affect or change you? If so, how?
- How do you think we need to act to ensure that similar violations do not happen again?
Invite students to consider:
If they use the name and image of individuals in their text, they must first ensure that:
1. The person must have read their quotes if this is agreed and approved to have the name/picture published openly online.
2. Students should follow the publishing process in the tool and attach extra importance to the “Student Publisher’s Ethical Rules” which can be read under “Content” in the main menu at the top left of the tool.
Sources and credibility:
1. Be sure that students include the narrator as a source in the tool.
2. Invite students to use more sources to broaden the image and help the reader find other credible sources for deepening.
3. Make sure students read each other’s texts and review each other’s sources. Invite “peer reviewers” into the tool and feel free to advise students to use the chat for communication.
In order to give students’ chronicles more weight and broaden their perspective, students will now be able to choose the event or experience in the story that they were most affected by and seek more reliable sources about just that. Perhaps there are images in archives that they can access or numbers that can put the event in context? Perhaps a year can be useful for further researching, for example, what happened in Sweden this particular year? Encourage students to find out what their own relatives’ lives were like at the time, so that the events can be linked to themselves and thus feel closer.
Suggested sources can find students in the “Resource Bank” under the tab “Sources for students and teachers”.
Before students go online to seek credible information, it’s a good idea to prepare students for the possibility that they may encounter myths about the Holocaust. If such myths and conspiracy theories should appear during this work, you as a teacher can find support in the Forum for Living History material Difficult questions in the classroom.
Students who want to publish their articles can join the Young Voices for Tolerance campaign and spread them on social media with the hashtag #YoungVoicesforTolerance. In the figure below, students can get tips on how to increase their chances of reaching out. Download it here:
- What have we learned?
- Who else might have learned anything?
- What can we do when we see anti-Semitism, racism and intolerance in society? Try to list different ways of reacting in different contexts?